Saturday, February 15, 2020
The Broadway Cafe - Research Paper Example As it is mentioned, presently, most of the operations are not recorded, and the ones recorded are done so manually. Though businesses normally rely on lots of different spreadsheets, notes and data, the coffee shop, fortunately, has very little information on record. So, the first step would be to develop a database of all the items of the coffee shop, ranging from different specialized coffees, teas, bakery items, sandwiches, soups, and salads. Though Broadway Cafe has years of tradition and accumulated knowledge, they all lie in the hands of my grandfather. So, a Knowledge Management system will be introduced to prevent the loss of that information for good. Furthermore, the recipes of all items will be stored on computer, and only selected staff of the coffee shop will have access to the recipes, though information on items and their prices can be accessed by everyone. The next step will be to make the payrolls of the employees computerized. Using grandfatherÃ¢â¬â¢s memory and e mployeesÃ¢â¬â¢ help, the work history and payment of each employee will be stored on computer. The next stage will be to place computer kiosks so that all sales and purchases are recorded. Thus, all the transactions of the bakery will get computerized in the beginning. Here, help will be sought from accounting staff and IT experts as to what kind of information is required to be stored and assessed for smooth functioning of the firm. At this stage, I intend to introduce a special IT-based collaboration system for Broadway Cafe. This will help the sharing of knowledge and information among employees, customers, suppliers, and all others who are interested in Broadway Cafe. The best collaboration system for the cafe, in my opinion, will be a groupware system. This Groupware software will allow group interaction events such as calendaring, scheduling, and video-conferencing. It is very evident that having this system will allow the cafe to communicate with our customers and suppliers . In addition, this will help complete various tasks in time by properly listing things on an e-calendar. However, database backup is very important for the cafe. So, care will be taken to ensure everyday backup of information. In addition, there will be weekly back of important information. In addition, to ensure computer safety, employees will be allowed access only to limited areas of information that are needed for the smooth functioning of the cafe. Now, customers will have many options to order a product from Broadway Cafe. They can directly order at our counters, they can utilize the kiosks placed inside and just outside the cafe, or they can order from home by visiting our site. For easiness of payment, we will be introducing PayPal. Now, it seems that there are certain necessary renovations to be introduced at the cafe. The first one will be introducing an attractive menu, attractive uniform for the staff, and television screens and music in the cafe. In addition, internet facility will be made available in the cafe so that even the busiest business executive gets a chance to have a coffee while doing his business. After introducing these basic changes, it is time for the cafe to move on to think about developing its business using Information Technology. Now, after having computerized the cafe, it is time to use latest technology for attracting customers.
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Transformational leadership - Assignment Example Transformational leadership can be defined as in two different contextual values; theoretical value and the application value. In the theoretical value, transformational leadership can be defined through a formal qualification and circumstances that surround the situation at hand. It his qualification there is a fanatic grounding in the subject matter in order to get an in-depth look at the potential effect and implications especial when it comes to matters of ethics and moral department. In the application model definition, the definition of the theory is done and based on the application of the leadership skill on a particular endeavor or task. Having to site the various ways that transformational leadership can be defined a basic description of it can be given as leadership with enhanced motivation and performance amongst the following of a leader that has been done through various mechanisms. The leadership involves the connection with the following, being role models, challengin g the following to develop creativity and inspiring the following in order for them to share in the dream of the leader. Literature review One of the many famous scholars who have defined transformational leadership is James Macgregor Burns. Burns described transformational leadership as not just a set of behavior and characters but he described it as a continuous process where the leader exhibit high level of integrity morality and motivation aspects in their leadership. In his description of transformational leadership burns described that transformational leaders offer directional purpose to their subjects that not only transcend in the short term achievements by to more long-term and intrinsic need for their subject. He also added that transformational leaders tend to raise the standards trough appealing to the higher level of ideas, morals, and values as compared to other forms of leadership This definition by Burns was highly influenced by MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of needs. It i s on this theory that it is noted that different human being has different ranges of need and different extents that the individual intends to fulfill them. This theory of needs also acknowledges that different individualÃ¢â¬â¢s at different level have different efficiency level and motivation at work. This highly affects the satisfaction of needs. Transformational leaders as per Burns fall in the higher levels of the theory of needs: self-esteem and self-actualization levels. Components of Transformational Leadership Transformational leadership has over the years evolved from components of other of preceding methods of leadership. Some of these theories include the behavior theories, charismatic theory situational theory, and transactional theory. These three theories form the four basic components of transformational leadership. The three components can be described as follows Charismatic influence This can be defined as the level or degree to which any particular leader exhibit ing transformational leadership behaves or carries himself or herself.
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Ralph, the first character introduced to the audience, is probably the most likable character in the entire story. Although he does not ponder such deeply like Piggy, is not as spiritual like Simon, or as energetic as Jack, there is something in him that attracts the audience. Ralph serves as the protagonist of the story. He is described as being a playful, innocent child in the beginning, but towards the end he matures significantly. In the first chapter where he takes his clothes off and goes swimming like any child would do, he seems to be Adam in the Garden of Eden, a child left to play with the nature. However, as the plot progresses, Ralph faces both internal and external conflicts; from those conflicts he greatly matures. Ralph always has the strong belief that all the children will be saved from the island sooner or later; he is so sure that he even insists that they should have fire at all times to signal. However, when the boys abandon the fire which is symbolic of RalphÃ¢â¬â¢s hope of getting saved, Ralph faces an internal conflict that makes him fear about their future; perhaps they will not be rescued at all. By insisting that the children should keep the fire going, he creates an external conflict with Jack whose values are different. Jack is enjoying life as a leader of the savages, and he fears that fire will possibly end his authoritarian rule over the savages. Both conflicts are resolved when Ralph finally meets the naval officer. Ralph is one of the few boys who realize that the only way to survive is through peace and order. Because he summons the boys at the beginning of the novel with the conch he and Piggy find, they look upon him as the most responsible of the boys and elect him as a chief over the humiliated Jack. Ralph creates a stable and peaceful society for the children to live; this significantly bothers Jack because he wants to have fun and do things that he never did back in the civilized society. Jack is eventually successful of pulling nearly all of the children out of RalphÃ¢â¬â¢s control to form savages. Ralph represents the civilization, and Jack represents the primitive society. Moreover, Ralph is GoldingÃ¢â¬â¢s symbolic method of democracy. To the audience, Ralph seems like Franklin D. Roosevelt during the World War IIÃ¢â¬âhe was certainly capable of stopping the World War II from breaking out, but he could not force anybody thus letting the War break out.
Thursday, January 16, 2020
A Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson, written by Mary Rowlandson, is about King PhilipÃ¢â¬â¢s War. The war started on June 20 in 1675 and was between English colonists and Native Americans. During the war, the Indians attacked English colonistsÃ¢â¬â¢ territory. They burned the colonistsÃ¢â¬â¢ houses, killed the resisters and captured some of the colonists. The living of captives was very tough. They had to move from place to place with the Indians. The Indians treated them very badly. If they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t listen to the Indians, they would be beaten or even be killed. Besides, the weather was cold and sometimes the food supply was short. As a result, lots of captives died during the captivity. As a victim of the Indian attacks, Mary Rowlandson wrote a vivid description of the eleven weeks and five days she spent living with Native Americans which owns very high value in American Literature. First of all, the work owns high historical value in American Literature. In her description, she vividly shows her experience as a captive which makes people easily understand the situation at this period and the relationship between English colonist and the Indians. In her description, we can find that all the English captives didnÃ¢â¬â¢t be ruled by the same Indian master. There were different Indian masters. Each Indian master owned English captives and located in different places. According to the masters, the captives could be transferred from one tribe to another. Also, in the description, sometimes Mary Rowlandson communicated with the Indians. From this point, we can find that some of the Indians could speak English. Besides, in the work, we can also know how English colonists deal with Native Americans. They trade by money, clothes, tobacco, liquors, seed corn hemlock, ground ivy and etc. This point shows that the living of the Indians was tough then. They lacked food and some daily necessaries, so it was effective to trade with them by something they really needed in their lives instead of money. Secondly, this work also shows the high value of Christian point of view. As a Christian, Mary Rowlandson uses lots of quotes and passages from the Bible in the description. No matter how hard the captivity was, she alwaysÃ showed her piety to God. Instead of blaming the Indians, she used the stories in the Bible to console her sorrow and suffering. The Bible was the center of her life during the captivity. Even though her experience was so painful, she thanked God for everything. In the work, she strongly showed the positive side of Christianity which make readers offer high value to the Christians. A Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson is one of the important works in American Literature. It offers readers high values of history and Christian point of view. By reading the story of Mary Rowlandson, we can clearly understand this period of American history. and also realize the virtue of Christianity.
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
Clarissa Dalloway and Septimus Warren Smith Clarissa Dalloway and Septimus Warren Smith are two of the character is in the book Mrs. Dalloway by Virginia Woolf. Clarissa Dalloway and Septimus Warren Smith are unhappy with their lives. Although, Clarissa and Septimus are both unhappy the basis for their unhappiness stems from different reasons and/or events that have happened in their lives. But the both fear the can not feel as others feel. Clarissa Dalloway, a middle aged upper class woman, is unhappy because of choices she has made in her life she also fears that she can not feel things as others do. Septimus Smith, a World War I veteran, is unhappy because of effects of the war. Septimus worries that when EvanÃ¢â¬â¢s died he did notÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Clarissa goes on with the description saying she is Ã¢â¬Å"nothingÃ¢â¬ ¦.this being Mrs. Dalloway; not even Clarissa anymore; this being Mrs. Richard Dalloway.Ã¢â¬ () Clarissa feels she is unimportant, that she has no self-identity, no purpose in life. Clarissa believes one of her duties being Mrs. Richard Dalloway is to throw lavish parties. Although, Clarissa enjoys throwing these parties also feels unsuccessful as a hostess. Party planning consumes her entire life and then she constantly worries that the party will be disastrous. Miss Kilman, ElizabethÃ¢â¬â¢s tutor, does not like Clarissa and the feeling is mutual for Clarissa. Clarissa feels inferior toward Miss Kidman this is noted by the line Ã¢â¬Å"she was never in the room five minutes without making you feel her superiority, your inferiorityÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (12) Clarissa feels like Miss Kilman is the enemy, like Miss Kilman is stealing Elizabeth from her. Clarissa is jealous because Miss Kilman seems to have a better relationship with her daughter than Clarissa does herself. Clarissa Dalloway always wanted to be a high society wife. Now that she is Mrs. Richard Dalloway she is realizing that her life is not as happy as she thought it would be. Although, Clarissa believes she made the correct choice in marrying Richard she thinks about Peter quite a bit, she feels being Mrs. Richard Dalloway leaves her with no identity. Clarissa enjoys throwing parties but the planning of the party consumes her and she dwells on the outcomeShow MoreRelatedVirginia Woolf Created Septimus Warren Smith as a Double for Clarissa. in What Ways Are Clarissa and Septimus Different? in What Ways Are They the Same?729 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagescreated Septimus Warren Smith as a double for Clarissa. In what ways are Clarissa and Septimus different? In what ways are they the same? Published in 1925, Mrs. Dalloway is a novel written by Virginia Woolf, an English novelist who is considered as being one of the most important writers of the twentieth century. This novel covers multiple themes such as solitude, insanity, love and death, themes that reveal realities that she had lived herself. Clarissa Dalloway and Septimus Warren Smith are twoRead MoreEssay about Issues in Virginia WoolfÃ¢â¬â¢s Mrs. Dalloway630 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesIssues in Virginia WoolfÃ¢â¬â¢s Mrs. Dalloway Virginia WoolfÃ¢â¬â¢s Mrs. Dalloway revolves around several of the issues that preoccupied the Bloomsbury writers and thinkers as a group. Issues of androgyny, class, madness, and mythology run throughout the novel. While that is hardly an exhaustive list, these notions seem to form the core of the structure of the novel. Woolf herself, when envisioning the project, sought to produce Ã¢â¬Å"a study of insanity and suicide, the world seen by the sane and the insaneRead MoreMrs. Dalloway by Virginia Woolf981 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesguides our actions, thoughts, and emotion. Naturally, we assume that these times are set in unison to each other, as time is always relative to an observer. But what happens when the times of the external and internal differ? In the novel Mrs. Dalloway by Virginia Woolf, Woolf begins to explore this question through her unique writing style of free indirect discourse to travel forward and back in time, as Woolf narrates freely through the thoughts and memories of each character. With each half-hourRead MoreMrs. Dalloway By Virginia Woolf751 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMrs.Dalloway, written by Virginia Woolf in 1925 is about a day in the life of Clarissa Dalloway as she gets ready to host a party that evening. Mrs.Dalloway is a stream of consciousness story and the readers get a chance to know not only ClarissaÃ¢â¬â¢s though but also other character that have very different lifestyles and social/economic status from Clarissa. The story closely tracks Clarissa, Septimus Warren Smith, Peter Walsh, Miss Kilman and a few other characters. Throughout the day the differentRead MoreLondon as setting for Mrs. Dalloway1470 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesJohnson In Mrs. Dalloway, Virginia Woolf uses the setting of the city of London to effectively show the vastly different emotional responses of the characters. The city of London, in June, is the primary location in which three of the novels characters are placed; although they inhabit the same period of time, they display completely different responses. The protagonist, Clarissa Dalloway, enjoys the experience from her position of privilege and comfort. Septimus Warren Smith, by contrast, isRead More An Abstract View of Death in Mrs.Dalloway and The Hours Essay1679 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCited Missing In Mrs. Dalloway and The Hours contradictory and almost altered views of death are presented. Virginia Woolf and Michael Cunningham portray death as escape for some, but an entrapment for others. It is no longer treated as a subject to worry about or fear, which society now views it as. A line from Shakespeares Cymbeline, Fear no more the heat o the sun / Nor the furious winter rages, sums up what the authors of Mrs. Dalloway and The Hours are trying toRead Morethe theme of madness in mrs dalloway1443 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMadness in Mrs Dalloway Madness is a prevalent theme in Ã¢â¬ËMrs DallwayÃ¢â¬â¢ and is expressed primarily, and perhaps most obviously through the characters Septimus Warren Smith and Clarissa Dalloway Ã¢â¬â however the theme is also explored more subtly in more minor characters such as Lucrezia and Mrs Kilman. Virgina WoolfÃ¢â¬â¢s own issues inspired her greatly, as she herself suffered her first mental breakdown at the tender age of thirteen and was prescribed Ã¢â¬Ërest cureÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â just as Septimus is; Woolf is often describedRead MoreEssay On Mrs Dalloway1021 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Influenced Women Taking a Stand in Mrs. Dalloway Virginia WoolfÃ¢â¬â¢s Mrs. Dalloway is a detailed day of a high society british woman named Clarissa Dalloway who is the host of a party. As she goes on with her day for preparations for the party, a tragic event stumbles upon an acquaintance of hers before the grand festivity. When word spreads of the shocking yet terrifying accident, Clarissa has an eye-opening realization because of the event that causes her to change her life and future for theRead MoreEssay On Clarissa And Septimus1121 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAlthough both Clarissa and Septimus are treated for different medical reasons, their society shows how people are treated and how the medical industry and the government do not care fully enough on these issues. Both characters put the thought of death into their stream of conscious. Unfortunately, Septimus choose the suicidal route. So, whatÃ¢â¬â¢s the difference then? Society played a huge role on both Septimus and ClarissaÃ¢â¬â¢s decision in their life. The governme nt and their society put little to noRead MoreLondon of Mrs Dalloway1184 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesnature of this time. Mrs. Dalloway showcases this conflict on both social and individual levels. In Mrs. Dalloway, Virginia Woolf uses the setting of the city of London to effectively show the vastly different emotional responses of the characters. The city of London, in June, is the primary location in which three of the novels characters are placed; although they inhabit the same period of time, they display completely different responses. The protagonist, Clarissa Dalloway, enjoys the experience
Tuesday, December 31, 2019
George Washington is one of the central figures of American history Ã¢â¬â as one of the founders of the United States of America in its modern form, the first US President, the general who led armies to victory during the defining War for Independence, he is hard to be surpassed by any other person. However important this other person is for the history of the country, without George Washington there wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have been any country in the first place. That is why it is only natural for tutors and professors to give their students a George Washington essay to write now and then Ã¢â¬â and expect them to treat the task with all seriousness. Where to Get Information on George Washington Frankly speaking, anywhere. There is hardly any other historical character that had been the subject of more research that George Washington. Depending on the seriousness of your task, however, you should look for more or less scientific sources. If you are writing an essay for high school, it will be more than enough to surf the Internet and look through a couple of historical websites, possibly to skim through a book or two you find in footnotes in Wikipedia. But if you write for college or university, you need more detailed information on George Washington. Find books by celebrated historians, preferably the ones who specialized in George WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s biography. Read them carefully, note the sources they used and, if necessary, do the same. George Washington History and What to Write about It If you have to write a history essay on Washington, choose a specific episode or period from his life. Being an important historical figure who lived in not so distant future, he left many accounts and testimonies from first-hand witnesses Ã¢â¬â in short, we know a lot about him, there is not shortage in sources of information you may use. Check the facts and choose a more interesting episode, which, in your opinion, has been defining in George Washington history and its influence on the history of the USA and the world in general Ã¢â¬â it is one of the best ways to write an interesting and captivating essay on this topic even if you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have a lot of time. George Washington Essay Paper Topics Try to separate what you know about George Washington into segments, judging different aspects of his personality: as a statesman; as a general; as a political leader; as a private person; and so on. As it is usual in the case of a topic that has a lot of information sources on it, your average George Washington essay paper will only benefit if you somehow narrow the subject matter down. If you try to encompass the entire topic, you are likely to write something rather shallow, and your tutor will be unlikely to give you credit for it. If, however, you take a small part of a larger topic, you will be able to write an interesting and deep account of it within the small space of an essay.
Monday, December 23, 2019
Psychology, Theology, and Spirituality Summary McMinn unveils the realism of what essentially happens in the counseling office. He dives into the fitting together Ã¢â¬Å"Psychology, Theology, and Spirituality in Christian CounselingÃ¢â¬ . McMinn explains how Ã¢â¬Å"those who enter therapy in the midst of their pain experience a restorative counseling relationship that brings acceptance hope, and meaning into their broken livesÃ¢â¬ (McMinn, 2011, p. 20). There are various questions surrounding Christian counseling that McMinn faces head on in this book when it comes to the challenges counselors face as it relates to integrating religion and spirituality in their sessions. Life on the frontier as McMinn puts it, is where counselors face six basic challenges. Challenges such as moving from two areas of competence to three, blurred personal-professional distinctions, expanded definitions of training, confronting dominant views of mental health, establishing a scientific base or even defining relevant ethical standards (McMinn, 2011). Personal journeyÃ¢â¬â¢s that McMinn has taken throughout his career provide him with the knowledge, skills and abilities to depict how we should face these challenges. McMinn talks about how many counselors have a need to interpret studies, have good psychodynamics and figure out which cognitive therapy is right for their counseling. As he states, Ã¢â¬Å"Christian counseling is more complex than other forms of counseling because our goal are multifaceted (McMinn, 2011, p.Show MoreRelatedPsychology, Theology And Spirituality1267 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages A 4-MAT Review: Psychology, Theology and Spirituality in the Christian Counseling Introduction Mark McMinn is a trained psychologist who is known for his book that was written in 1996 called Psychology, Theology and Spirituality in Christian Counseling. McMinn had advocated for the Christians who are counselors for many years. McMinn is very experienced in the work and in his field of study. One of the biggest things that McMinn stresses is the importance of establishing and maintaining a goodRead MorePsychology, Theology, And Spirituality Essay1665 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Mark R. McMinnÃ¢â¬â¢s (2011) Psychology, Theology, and Spirituality in Christian Counseling establish a way to bring Psychology, Theology, and Spirituality to Christian Counselors. He introduces a replica of how to integrate the three disciplines in the counseling office. The purpose of the book is to instruct counselors how to integrate categories of Psychology, Theology and Spirituality into Christian Counseling. McMinn (2011) contends that many challenges both professional and personal face ChristianRead MorePsychology, Theology And Spirituality1445 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesR. McMinn uses his book, Psychology, Theology and Spirituality in Christian Counseling to integrate the use of spirituality in Christian counseling in a way that a counselor can use them in a counseling session effectively. McMinn makes the use of various spiritual techniques like prayer, reading the Word and confession and incorporates them in ways that make spirituality work alongside theory in a cohesive ma tter. McMinn explains the world pf psychology and theology is not only something thatRead MorePsychology, Theology, And Spirituality Essay1244 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSummary Psychology, Theology, and Spirituality in Christian Counseling by Dr. Mark R. McMinn is a very insightful reading for Christian counselors. This book was originally written in 1996, but the revised in 2011 with the help of Dr. McMinn s students. McMinn begins his wonderful reading by introducing the readers to religion in the counseling office. He starts this section a potential client scenario. This client is looking for a suitable counselor who is spiritually sensitive. Different counselorsRead MorePsychology, Theology, And Spirituality1411 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPsychology, Theology, and Spirituality in Counseling by Mark R. McMinn is a book that discusses two different characteristics of the Christian Counseling field: in counseling sessions and life beyond the counseling sessions for example, the counselorÃ¢â¬â¢s job and the counselorÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Dr. McMinn starts his book with a brief section written with James Wilhoit that discusses religion in the counseling office. This first section talks about the importance of making good use of the Christian faith in counselingRead MorePsychology, Theology, And Spirituality891 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesReview of McMinn Summary In the book Psychology, theology, and spirituality in Christian counseling by Mark McMinn (2011), he explores the simultaneous integration of psychology, theology, and spirituality in the counseling relationship. McMinn (2011), stresses the importance of this skill throughout the text and offers insightful and effective ways to manage this. In order to further breakdown this information, McMinn (2011) discusses and evaluates six religious intervention strategies: prayerRead MorePsychology, Theology, And Spirituality1658 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSummary In the book, Psychology, Theology, and Spirituality in Christian Counseling, McMinn expands upon the theory of integrating psychology and theology by providing the reader with concrete methods to utilize in counseling. His approach to integration is filled with helpful guidance for any counselor striving to strike the appropriate balance in their sessions. McMinn divulges into how and when to use scripture, prayer, confession and redemption. He advocates for utilizing these methods on aRead MorePsychology, Theology, And Spirituality1413 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe book Ã¢â¬Å"Psychology, Theology, and Spirituality in Christianity CounselingÃ¢â¬ by Mark R. McMinn (2011) is an informative read that delves into the issues of practically integrating concepts of psychological counseling in the Christian context. Some of the questions that McMinn (2011) aspires to address in the book include whether it is appropriate to pray with clients, the role of confession during the therapy process , whether counselors should use scripture memory during the interventions as wellRead MorePsychology, Theology, and Spirituality in Christian Counseling by Mark McMinn1464 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages4 MAT Review McMinn Lynetric Rivers Liberty University Abstract In the book, Ã¢â¬Å"Psychology, Theology, and Spirituality in Christian CounselingÃ¢â¬ , author Mark McMinn gives the reader information on how these three entities can work together in Christian counseling. McMinn offers several ways in which this can be done including the use of prayer, Scripture, confession, forgiveness, the effects of sin, and redemption in counseling sessions. Through narration of counseling vignettes displaying differentRead MoreA Review Of Mcminn s Text : Psychology, Theology, And Spirituality1195 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesA Review of McMinnÃ¢â¬â¢s Text: Psychology, Theology, and Spirituality in Christian Counseling Summary McMinn tells how psychology, theology, and spirituality are used and how they should be used in Christian counseling. A Christian counselor has to look at not necessarily psychology and theology in a counseling session but how religion and spiritually is brought into the session. McMinn (2011) states, Ã¢â¬Å"Religious interventions require us to understand spiritual formation, place priority on personal spiritual